Natural monuments on the territory of Azerbaijani Republic are specific and
well-preserved small areas of most typical landscapes, scenic corners of
special aesthetic value, definite areas with endemic, relic and disappearing
fauna, aged trees, examples of horticultural art, waterfalls, caves, lakes with
unique genesis and morphology, original geological rock formations, the sites
with paleonthological finding, other sites having great historical,
cultural-educational significance and other picturesque places.
There are 2083 trees with age over 100 years, 37 geological and
paleonthological sites and over 15 thousand hectares of standard oryginal,
endemic and rare types and valuable forest areas. All these sites are under
protection and the State Committtee of Ecology issued passports for each
natural monument, and local powers are providing their protection.
Special care is given to forest areas and natural environments. There are 30
such protected sites including:
- Pisttachio grove in Barda district - unique botanic object of mesophilic
forest formation with trees 370-450 years old.
- Boxwood grove in Astara district is a representative of oldest Girkanian
flora, relict grove of tertiary period. Very precious are 200-300 years old
evergreen boxwood, Girkanian yew, other trees.
- Eldar pine grove on the border with Georgia (Ellaroglu Ridge, branch of
- Plane tree grove in Basutchai Reserve - the largest plane-tree formation in
Basutchai River meadow.
- Araz oak in Zangilan district is disappearing type and can be found only in
forests at the shores of Araz River.
There are 37 geological(paleonthogical) natural monuments under state
- 9 caves, including Azykh cave with Neolithic settlement of prehistoric man
and rock paintings.
- Unique geological formations like Mount of Baku storey with classical cuts
of lower anthropogenic deposits 70 meters thick - Æångin 400-600m.
deep and consisting of marble originated by limestone metamorphoses.
- 4 mud volcanoes: Lokbatan with maximal number of registered irruption (20),
is situated at the altitude of 130m above the sea and differs from other
volcanoes by absence of griphon stage; Âiraitskian - one of most
interesting bastion-shaped volcanoes of Gobustan is situated at the southwest
projection of Alyat Ridge border of Kur lowlands, as well as peculiar mud
Kyanizadaq and Dashqil volcanoes of Gobustan.
- Afurjin waterfall at Velvelichai River where water falls vertically from
the height of 60 meters.
Paleonthologic objects like Binagadin asphalt lake is a site of quartentiary
flora and fauna thanks to their diversity and good preservation belongs to
richest deposits of the world. There are 243 types of fossil flora and fauna -
huge collection of remains of sea animals, whales, sea turtles, fish, insects
and plants belonging to Maikop deposits and presented by clay soil, shale, etc.